Rules and Procedures
Preferred Activity Time (PAT)
Procedures, and Routines
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Effective classroom teachers develop
an organizational structure composed of a specific set of
rules, procedures, and routines to manage their
classrooms. These rules, procedures, and routines are
taught to students at the beginning of the school year.
They reduce teacher time with discipline problems, reduce
teacher work load, and help build a secure, affirming
envronment which maximizes student learning.
The following material identifies
typical classroom rules, and specifies a variety of
classroom procedures and routines developed to bring
consistency and order to the environment.
Expected norms of
Prevent or encourage
with others, time, space, and materials.
Do not change.
Are limited in
number from five to eight.
respect for others' property."
rules often translate into specfic procedures.]
Ways of getting
class activities done.
What you want
students to do.
May change according
tothe needs of the situation.
Makes tasks routine.
predictablility, and time savings.
Procedure for getting students' attention
Eyes on speaker
[Schloss, P. & Smith, M.
(1998). Applied Behavior Analysis in the
Classroom. Boston: Allyn & Bason.]
upon entering the classroom:
Place all school
materials on or in desk.
jackets, etc. in cubbie/closet.
Place lunch money,
permission slips or notes from home into
teacher's "In Basket."
Pick up scratch
paper; deposit homework into
Read assignment on
Begin seat work on
Pass in seat work.
to "News and Announcements."
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Students who lack adequate social
skills are at a higher risk for academic
underachievement, dropping out of school, lack of
friends, and unsuccessful employment. The erosion of the
family unit and other traditional social structures has
forced schools to assume a larger role in the development
of social skills in children in order to promote
psychological health and school success.
What are social skills? They are
"socially acceptable learned behaviors that enable a
person to intercat in ways that elicit positive responses
and assist in avoiding negative responses."
(Cartledge & Milburn, 1986).
The material in this section
identifies social skills needed by children to ensure
their successful adaptation to the school environment. In
addition, it includes a systematic approach to teaching
social skills in a classroom setting.
Child may not know
the appropriate behavior.
Child may have the
knowledge but lack the practice.
may inhibit performance of appropriate
feedback and reinforcement.
[McGinnis, E. &
Goldstein, A. (1984). Skillstreaming the
Elementary School Child. Champaign, Il:
Research Press Company.]
Teaching a Social Skill
Describe, Explain, Discuss
Introduce the context for the skill
"There are times when we get upset and
angry."; Question: "What makes a
good listener?"; Read a relevant story
Describe the components of the skill
a. Stop and think.
(Verbalize what the student might be
b. Take a deep
breath and count to five.
c. Say the problem
and how you feel.
d. Go inside your
shell and calm down.
e. Wait until you
feel calm, then come back out of your
Model the Skill
to the students the steps in executing the skill.
Use a live vignette with the teacher modeling the
steps in the skill. Make it realistic by
struggling to execute some of the steps.
students learn how to perform the skill. Select
two students to play the main roles.
Student describes a situation in which the
skill might be helpful.
Student chooses a co-actor with whom he or
she has a problem.
Relevant information about the event is
Skill steps are reviewed. (Have a chart with
the skill and the steps.)
Direct the main actor to "think out
Designate responsibilities of observers.
Assist / coach main actor through the role
Performance Feedback and Reinforcement
specific and concrete regarding how well the
steps in the skill were followed. Solicit
feedback from the co-actor, from observers, and
finally the teacher. If feedback is too negative
or off target, the leader may go first and model
the appropriate way to give feedback. Provide
reinforcement (e.g. praise/encouragement:
"Nice job, Billy... You covered all the
Making Model and Social Skills Training: Good Choices vs.
are good choices?
the rules, following the procedures.
helpful to othersm lending a hand.
are bad choices?
"Shut up!" "You're a
jerk!" Making fun of someone.
jumping aheadin line, shouting out in
class, throwing trash on the floor.
taking two cookies when there is only one
per person, refusing to help clean and
straighten the classroom at the end of
the following points:
Each person is
responsible for his or her own behavior.
Others don't make us
Our behavior and
actions are a matter of personal choice.
- Each person
has the freedom to make good choices or
common situations where it would be very helpful to think
about your choices:
- Someone teases
you in the lunchroom.
- You are
tempted to throw your trash under the
table rather than walk to the trash can
in the back of the room.
- A teacher asks
if you did something. (You did it!) Do
you tell the truth or do you lie?
There are two steps we can
take to help us with our choices and decisions: Stop and
Before doing or acting
in a situation, stop yourself from taking any
immediate action. How can we do this? Count to five
(5) and / or take two slow breaths. This will slow us
down and give us time to use our minds. Now we are
ready for step two.
Let yourself think for
a few seconds about:
- the actions you
are about to take
- whether the
actions are respectful, responsible, and
- the consequences
of these actions
- whether there are
other (better) actions available
||These two Stop
and Think steps will be very helpful as
part of the conflict management series of skills:
I. Dealing with
anger / self-control
consequences, correction, complaints
with your angry feelings
- Take two deep breaths
and count to five.
- Think about the
problem situation and how you feel.
- Think about your
choices (good choices vs. bad choices)
1. Walk away.
2. Talk to someone
about how you feel.
3. Ask somone for help
in solving the problem.
4. Go into your turtle
shell and wait until you are calm before coming out.
5. Talk to the other
person in a calm way.
- Act out your best
Activity Time (PAT)
Responsibility Training through Preferred Activity Time
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"The ultimate goal of
discipline is to train young people to be responsible for
their own actions" (Jones, 1987). The more this
occurs, the more self-control will children possess and
the more effective will they be in managing their own
Responsibility Training is a
strategy that will have as its outcomes (1) an orderly
classroom environment, (2) cooperative students, (3)
higher levels of academic achievement, and (4) increased
The materials in this section are
taken from Jones, F.H. (1987). Positive Classroom
Discipline. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Something for which
to be responsible.
Activity Time (PAT): Time to engage in fun,
action-oriented learning activities. It is:
Gifted by teacher
each day / week.
Earned by students
through positive behavior.
Wasted by students
through negative behavior.
Consumed by students
engaged in fun learning-related
[Jones, F.H. (1987). Positive
Classroom Discipline. New York: McGraw Hill.]